What was new in 4.1?

Praat 4.1, 5 June 2003


• MacOS X edition.
• Removed licensing.
• More than 99 percent of the source code distributed under the General Public License.
• Windows 2000 and XP: put preferences files in home directory.


• Spectrum: the sign of the Fourier transform has changed, to comply with common use in technology and physics. Old Spectrum files are converted when read.
• Spectral moments.
• Many jitter and shimmer measures, also in the Sound editor window.
• PitchTier: shift or multiply frequencies (also in ManipulationEditor).
• TextGrid: shift times, scale times.
• Overlap-add synthesis: reduced buzz in voiceless parts.
Sound: Change gender...
• Editors: Intro 3.6. Viewing a spectral slice.
• Editors: Get spectral power at cursor cross.
Sound: To PointProcess (periodic, peaks)...
• Ltas: merge.

Listening experiments:

• Goodness judgments.
• Multiple ResultsMFC: To Table, so that the whole experiment can go into a single statistics file.
• Stimulus file path can be relative to directory of experiment file.
ExperimentMFC: multiple substimuli for discrimination tests.


• New Table object for column statistics: Pearson's r, Kendall's τ-b, t-test.
• Table: scatter plot.
• Table: column names as variables.
• TableOfReal: Extract rows where column...
• TableOfReal: Get correlation....
Correlation: Confidence intervals...
SSCP: Get diagonality (bartlett)...

OT learning:

• Tutorial for bidirectional learning.
• Random choice between equally violating candidates.
• More constraints in metrics grammar.
• Learning in editor.


• Printing: hard-coded image interpolation for EPS files and PostScript printers.


• New Formulas tutorial.
Formulas: can use variables without quotes.
• Formulas for PitchTier, IntensityTier, AmplitudeTier, DurationTier.
• Refer to any matrices and tables in formulas, e.g. Sound_hello (x) or Table_everything [row, col] or Table_tokens [i, “F1”].
• Assignment by modification, as with += -= *= /=.
• New functions: date$ (), extractNumber, extractWord$, extractLine$. See Formulas 6. String functions.
Scripting 5.8. Including other scripts.
• String formulas in the calculator.
• Stopped support of things that had been undocumented for the last four years: let, getnumber, getstring, ARGS, copy, proc, variables with capitals, and strings in numeric variables; there are messages about how to modify your old scripts.
• Disallowed ambiguous expressions like -3^2.

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© Paul Boersma 2003