A representation (of a sound signal, for instance) as some sort of intensity as a function of time and frequency. In Praat, we have the Spectrogram, which is acoustic energy density as a function of time in seconds and frequency in Hz, and the Cochleagram, which is basilar membrane excitation as a function of time in seconds and frequency in Bark.
For tutorial information, see Intro 3.1. Viewing a spectrogram.
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