Phonetic symbols: diacritics

To draw phonetic diacritical symbols in the Picture window or in the TextGridEditor, make sure that you have installed the Charis SIL and/or Doulos SIL font, for instance from or from You can either type the symbols directly (if your computer has an input method for them), or use the backslash sequences in the following list.


n̩ n\|v (combining vertical line below): syllabic consonant
b̥ b\0v (combining ring below): voiceless (e.g. lenis voiceless plosive, voiceless nasal or approximant)
o̞ o\Tv (combining down tack below, lowering): lowered vowel; or turns a fricative into an approximant
o̝ o\T^ (combining up tack below, raising): raised vowel; or turns an approximant into a fricative
o̘ o\T( (combining left tack below, atr): advanced tongue root
o̙ o\T) (combining right tack below, rtr): retracted tongue root
e̠ e\-v (combining macron below): backed
o̟ o\+v (combining plus sign below): fronted
o̤ o\:v (combining diaeresis below): breathy voice
o̰ o\~v (combining tilde below): creaky voice
d̪ d\Nv (combining bridge below): dental (as opposed to alveolar)
d̺ d\Uv (combining inverted bridge below): apical
d̻ d\Dv (combining square below): laminal
u̯ u\nv (combining inverted breve below): nonsyllabic
e̹ e\3v (combining right half ring below): slightly rounded
u̜ u\cv (combining left half ring below): slightly unrounded


ɣ̊ \gf\0^ (combining ring above): voiceless
ɛ́ \ef\'^ (combining acute accent): high tone
ɛ̀ \ef\\^ (%%combining grave accent%): low tone
ɛ̄ \ef\-^ (combining macron): mid tone (or so)
ɛ̃ \ef\~^ (combining tilde): nasalized
ɛ̌ \ef\v^ (combining caron, háček, wedge): rising tone
ɛ̂ \ef\^^ (combining circumflex accent): falling tone
ö o\:^ (combining diaeresis): centralized
e̽ e\x^ (combining x above): mid-centralized
ɛ̆ \ef\N^ (combining breve): short
k͡p t͡s k\lip t\lis (combining double inverted breve, ligature): simultaneous articulation, or single segment
a‿b a\_ub undertie (liaison, if spaces don't mean breaks in your transcription)

In line:

ː \:f the phonetic length sign
ˑ \.f half length
ˈ \'1 primary stress
ˌ \'2 secondary stress
| \|f the phonetic stroke
t̚ t\cn (combining left angle above, corner): unreleased plosive
ɜ˞ \er\hr (combining rhotic hook): rhotacized vowel
pʼ p\ap apostrophe (for ejectives)


tʰ t\^h aspiration
bʱ b\^H voiced aspiration (breathiness)
tʲ t\^j palatalization
tˠ t\^g, tᵚ t\^M, tᶭ t\^G velarization
kʷ k\^w rounding
tᶣ t\^Y rounding with palatalization
aˀ a\^? glottalization
tˁ t\^9 pharyngealization
tˡ t\^l lateral release
tⁿ t\^n, pᵐ p\^m, kᵑ k\^N nasal release
tˢ t\^s, kˣ k\^x, pᶠ p\^f affrication
tʸ t\^y (palatalization in a deprecated American notation)


ʦ \ts t–s ligature
ʧ \tS tesh ligature

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