Functional Phonology: chapter 2

Chapter 2: Articulation model

This chapter describes a model which represents the entire vocal apparatus as a structure of tubes with moving walls. The model is capable of simulating more features of the interaction between myo-elastical and aerodynamical properties, than any previous model.


2.1   Requirements
   2.1.1   Specification of the input: muscle activities or tasks?
   2.1.2   Controlling the muscles
   2.1.3   Smooth trajectories
   2.1.4   Aerodynamic-myoelastic interaction
   2.1.5   Timing
   2.1.6   Generating acoustic output
2.2   Overview of the articulation model
      Figure 2.1 (many tubes)
2.3   The springs and the masses
   2.3.1   Equation of motion
   2.3.2   The tension force
         Figure 2.3 (plucked string)
   2.3.3   The collision force
         Figure 2.4 (zipper)
   2.3.4   The coupling force
   2.3.5   The damping force
   2.3.6   The air pressure force
   2.3.7   Parallel subdivision
   2.3.8   The z direction
2.4   From muscles to tract shape
      Figure 2.5 (tube connections)
2.5   Speaker properties
   2.5.1   Three sizes of speakers
   2.5.2   Default values
2.6   Sublaryngeal system
      Figure 2.6 (lungs)
2.7   Larynx
   2.7.1   Conus elasticus
   2.7.2   Intermembranous glottis
   2.7.3   Intercartilagenous glottis
2.8   Nasal cavities
      Figure 2.7 (nose)
2.9   Pharyngeal and oral cavities
      Figure 2.8 (vocal tract construction)
      Figure 2.9 (muscle effects)
   2.9.1   Upper part of the larynx
   2.9.2   Jaw and tongue body
   2.9.3   Tongue root
   2.9.4   Velum and palate
   2.9.5   Tongue tip
   2.9.6   Teeth
   2.9.7   Lips
2.10   Meshing of the vocal tract
      Figure 2.10 (meshing)
   2.10.1   Mesh points on the outer contour
   2.10.2   The midlines of the tube sections
   2.10.3   The lengths of the mesh lines
   2.10.4   Equilibrium widths of pharyngeal and oral tube sections
      Figure 2.11 (ejective stop)
   2.10.5   Equilibrium lengths of pharyngeal and oral tube sections
2.11   Other oral and pharyngeal properties
2.12   Time
2.13   Conclusion
Forward to chapter 3.
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