Analysis

Praat commands used to calculate the analysis results

TEVA is a Praat script. The commands used to perform the analysis and draw the displays are listed here:

``` -```

### Pitch

``` select Sound SND``` ``` To Pitch (cc)... 0 40 15 yes 0.03 0.40 0.045 0.35 0.14 300```

There are three options, a low and high pitch cutoff (300 and 600Hz), and a compatible option that implements the settings of Van As 2001

``` To Pitch (cc)... 0 40 15 no 0.03 0.40 0.01 0.35 0.14 250```

### Spectrogram

``` select Sound SND``` ``` To Spectrogram... 0.1 'Fn' 0.001 10 Gaussian```

Fn is the Nyquist frequency

``` select Sound SND``` ``` To Formant (burg)... 0.02 4 4400 0.1 50```

### Ltas

``` select Sound SND``` ``` To Spectrum... yes``` ``` To Ltas (1-to-1)```

### Intensity

``` select Sound SND``` ``` To Intensity... 60 0 yes```

### Harmonicity

``` select Sound SND``` ``` To Harmonicity (cc)... 'dT' 40 0 1.0```

dT is the time step. The position of the maximum Harmonicity is determined on a smoothed low-pass filtered contour using 'dT' 40 0 4.5 (low-pass 5Hz and 5Hz transition), not on the highest peak.

### Voiced fraction

``` select Sound SND``` ``` To Pitch... 0 60 600```

Count the number of voiced frames in the window and divide by the total number of frames. Using these settings, the step size (frame duration) is 0.0125s.

### GNE (glottal to noise excitation ratio)

``` select Sound SND``` ``` Extract part... 'T1' 'T2' rectangular 1.0 false``` ``` To Harmonicity (gne)... 500 4500 1000 80``` ``` gne = Get maximum```

T1 and T2 are the start and end time, respectively

### Jitter

``` select Sound SND``` ``` To Pitch... 0 60 600``` ``` To PointProcess``` ``` jitter = Get jitter (local)... 'T1' 'T2' 0.0001 0.05 5```

T1 and T2 are the start and end time, respectively

### Shimmer

``` select Sound SND``` ``` To Pitch... 0 60 600``` ``` To PointProcess``` ``` select Sound SND``` ``` plus PointProcess SND``` ``` shimmer = Get shimmer (local)... 'T1' 'T2' 0.0001 0.05 5 5```

T1 and T2 are the start and end time, respectively

### BED (band energy difference)

``` select Sound SND``` ``` To Spectrum... yes``` ``` To Ltas (1-to-1)``` ``` Get number of bins```

Average power over bins. Where `lowPower` is the average power over bins between 0 and 500 Hz and `highPower` is the average power over bins between 4000 and 5000 Hz

``` bed = 10 * log10(lowPower / highPower)```

### CoG (spectral center of gravity)

``` select Sound SND``` ``` To Spectrum... yes``` ``` To Ltas (1-to-1)``` ``` Get number of bins```

Sum the power (`10(power/10)`), `sumPower` over the bins and the product of frequency and energy (`f * 10(power/10)`), `productFreq`, over all bins.

``` cog = productFreq / sumPower```

### Maximum Voicing Duration (MVD)

``` select Pitch SND``` ``` To PointProcess``` ``` To TextGrid (vuv)... 0.2 0.1``` ``` Get longest interval with label V```

### Formant quality factors (QF_i)

``` select Formant SND``` ``` medianF = Get quantile... 'i' 'T1' 'T2' Hertz 0.50``` ``` medianB = Get quantile of bandwidth... 'i' 'T1' 'T2' Hertz 0.50``` ``` qf = medianF / medianB```