The Praat program is a tool for phonetics research and can be downloaded for free from praat.org.
Paul Boersma & David Weenink (2009):|
Praat: doing phonetics by computer (Version 5.1.05) [Computer program].
Retrieved May 1, 2009, from http://www.praat.org/
At least, that is the style required by the American Psychological Association. The journal that you publish in may require a different style. If the journal does not allow you to cite a computer program, you can cite the following instead:
|2001||Praat, a system for doing phonetics by computer.|
Glot International 5(9/10): 341-345.
(These pages include a review by Vincent van Heuven.)
The following article describes Praat's pitch extraction and HNR algorithms:
|1993||Accurate short-term analysis of the fundamental frequency and the harmonics-to-noise ratio of a sampled sound.|
IFA Proceedings 17: 97-110.
The world's most accurate pitch-extraction algorithm: measures F0 with an accuracy of 10-6, and HNR values up to 60 dB.
The following article evaluates Praat's jitter, shimmer, and HNR algorithms:
Stemmen meten met Praat (measuring voices with Praat).|
Stem-, Spraak- en Taalpathologie 12: 237-251.
Preprint: 2004/12/23, 13 pages.
Here is an English version (of the jitter part):
Should jitter be measured by peak picking or by waveform matching?|
Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica 61: 305-308.
Preprint: 2009/03/02, 6 pages.
The following article describes Praat's pitch-corrected LTAS algorithm:
& Gordana Kovacic:|
Spectral characteristics of three styles of Croatian folk singing.
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 119: 1805-1816. [licence]
The following article describes a method for improving formant measurements by adapting the ceiling:
|2009||Paola Escudero, Paul Boersma, Andréia Schurt Rauber & Ricardo Bion:|
A cross-dialect acoustic description of vowels: Brazilian and European Portuguese.
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 126: 1379-1393. [licence]
Here is an example of scripting in Praat, applied to Ton Wempe's pitch-independent spectral analysis:
|2003/03/01||Ton Wempe & Paul Boersma:|
The interactive design of an F0-related spectral analyser.
Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Barcelona, August 3-9, 2003, pp. 343-346.
Praat's articulatory synthesizer is described in chapters 2, 3, and 5 of Functional Phonology (1998). For historical completeness, here are two earlier papers:
|1995/08||Interaction between glottal and vocal-tract aerodynamics in a comprehensive model of the speech apparatus.|
Proceedings of the XIIIth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Stockholm, vol. 2, pp. 430-433. [Abstract]
|1993/05||An articulatory synthesizer for the simulation of consonants.|
Proceedings Eurospeech '93, Berlin, pp. 1907-1910. [Abstract]
The best way to consult the Praat manual is to look under Help in the Praat program. That gives you the newest version of the manual, and a search option. For historical completeness, here are some published versions of (parts of) the manual:
|1999||Optimality-Theoretic learning in the Praat program.|
IFA Proceedings 23: 17-35 (= Rutgers Optimality Archive 380).
|1996||Paul Boersma & David Weenink:|
Praat, a system for doing phonetics by computer, version 3.4.
Institute of Phonetic Sciences of the University of Amsterdam, Report 132. 182 pages.
Go to Paul Boersma's home page.